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video link: https://youtu.be/9WvoGlQ7zH8 1.  Do you agree with the speaker’s pro

video link: https://youtu.be/9WvoGlQ7zH8
1.  Do you agree with the speaker’s proposal to move our national election day to a weekend instead of Tuesday?  Why or why not?
2.  Why do you think the politicians that were interviewed did not know the answer to his question?
3.  Besides moving election day to the weekend, what else do you think can be done to increase voter turnout on our national election day?

Is humanitarian intervention legal?  Using this week’s class material on the set

Is humanitarian intervention legal? 
Using this week’s class material on the settlement of disputes and use of force, Reflect on the legality of recent states’ practices of humanitarian intervention.
What is humanitarian intervention?
Can humanitarian intervention be justified?
minimun word count 300 word for each question
use evidence and cited 

Produce a 2-3 page memo on the topic outlined below and to prepare a 5 minute pr

Produce a 2-3 page memo on the topic outlined below and to prepare a 5 minute presentation.
Should be 12 point font, double-spaced, with 1 inch margin.
The creation of the International Criminal Court in the late 1990s represents a watershed moment in the development of international authority over war crimes and large-scale atrocities. Despite the enthusiasm with which the ICC was greeted by many states at its inception, the United States has taken a more ambivalent view. US attitudes toward the court have varied from reluctant and muted support during the Obama and Biden administrations to full throated opposition and hostility under the Bush and Trump administrations. What explains US hostility towards the ICC? What are the arguments for and against US membership in the ICC? Which of these arguments do you find most convincing and why?
Structure: In the first section, discuss the reasons and arguments that US officials and others have offered for why the US should continue to remain outside of the ICC. In the second section, make an argument for whether the US should join the ICC and why.  NOT discuss the structure, jurisdiction or authority of the ICC in your memo.
Use following resources:
Ruth Wedgewood. 1999. “The International Criminal Court: An American View.” European Journal of International Law. Vol. 10, pp. 93-107.
Hafner, Gerhard, et al. 1999. “A Response to the American View as Presented by Ruth Wedgewood.” European Journal of International Law. Vol. 10, pp. 108-123
The US-ICC Relationship. https://www.aba-icc.org/about-the-icc/the-us-icc-relationship/ (Links to an external site.)
Human Rights Watch Q and A: The ICC and the United States https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/09/02/qa-international-criminal-court-and-united-states# (Links to an external site.)

Go to the IAT website (Links to an external site.). Alternately, you can search

Go to the IAT website (Links to an external site.). Alternately, you can search for the “Implicit Association Test” using your search engine.
Find the box on the left labeled “Project Implicit Social Attitudes.” You may want to proceed as a guest user rather than registering, so click “GO!” in the lower panel of the box, next to the U.S. English window.
Read the information and disclaimer in the next window. Then, click “I wish to proceed.” Take the following tests: Race IAT; Age IAT; Gender- Career IAT; Disability IAT; Religion IAT; and Sexuality IAT.
Learn more about the IAT by clicking the “Education” button on the top of the window after you finish the tests and then clicking “About the IAT.” Browse the rest of the site and, especially, read the “Frequently Asked Questions.
Once you have completed the steps above, you can start draft
Questions
What is an “implicit” attitude? How does implicit prejudice differ from affective prejudice, stereotypes, social distance, and modern racism? Hint: visit the Frequently Asked Questions (Links to an external site.) page of Project Implicit Social Attitudes for definitions of some of these concepts and other useful information. 
If the test shows you have a preference for one group over another, does this mean that you are prejudiced against the less preferred group? Do you feel that the test accurately reflects your feelings and ideas? Why or why not? (Remember that your implicit attitudes can be quite different from your explicit or conscious attitudes.)
Based on what we have read so far in this course, how can implicit attitudes affect a diverse workplace? Provide at least 2 examples, citing any two of the readings we have reviewed so far in the course.
Should public administrators be trained to deal with implicit attitudes in the workplace? Why, why not?
Were you personally surprised by the results of any of the tests (you do not have to disclose your results)? If the IAT shows that you have a group preference you would rather not have, what are some things you could do to change these preferences?
Any other reflection you want to share?
Reference:
Zurbrugg & Miner (2016). Gender, sexual orientation, and workplace incivility: Who is most targeted and who is most harmed?
Bishu & Headly (2020). Equal employment opportunity: Women bureaucrats in male-dominated professions.
Hayes et al. (1995). Staffing for persons with disabilities: What is “fair” and what is “job-related”? 
Mishra (1995). The ADA helps but not much.  

Go to the IAT website (Links to an external site.). Alternately, you can search

Go to the IAT website (Links to an external site.). Alternately, you can search for the “Implicit Association Test” using your search engine.
Find the box on the left labeled “Project Implicit Social Attitudes.” You may want to proceed as a guest user rather than registering, so click “GO!” in the lower panel of the box, next to the U.S. English window.
Read the information and disclaimer in the next window. Then, click “I wish to proceed.” Take the following tests: Race IAT; Age IAT; Gender- Career IAT; Disability IAT; Religion IAT; and Sexuality IAT.
Learn more about the IAT by clicking the “Education” button on the top of the window after you finish the tests and then clicking “About the IAT.” Browse the rest of the site and, especially, read the “Frequently Asked Questions.
Once you have completed the steps above, you can start draft
Questions
What is an “implicit” attitude? How does implicit prejudice differ from affective prejudice, stereotypes, social distance, and modern racism? Hint: visit the Frequently Asked Questions (Links to an external site.) page of Project Implicit Social Attitudes for definitions of some of these concepts and other useful information. 
If the test shows you have a preference for one group over another, does this mean that you are prejudiced against the less preferred group? Do you feel that the test accurately reflects your feelings and ideas? Why or why not? (Remember that your implicit attitudes can be quite different from your explicit or conscious attitudes.)
Based on what we have read so far in this course, how can implicit attitudes affect a diverse workplace? Provide at least 2 examples, citing any two of the readings we have reviewed so far in the course.
Should public administrators be trained to deal with implicit attitudes in the workplace? Why, why not?
Were you personally surprised by the results of any of the tests (you do not have to disclose your results)? If the IAT shows that you have a group preference you would rather not have, what are some things you could do to change these preferences?
Any other reflection you want to share?
Reference:
Zurbrugg & Miner (2016). Gender, sexual orientation, and workplace incivility: Who is most targeted and who is most harmed?
Bishu & Headly (2020). Equal employment opportunity: Women bureaucrats in male-dominated professions.
Hayes et al. (1995). Staffing for persons with disabilities: What is “fair” and what is “job-related”? 
Mishra (1995). The ADA helps but not much.  

Over the last 20 years the United States as a nation has witnessed and waged war

Over the last 20 years the United States as a nation has witnessed and waged war against various forms of what scholars have dubbed public health crisis. Through various administrations, state officials, and first responders the United States has answered the call through various policy initiatives, state mandates and public health declarations. 
The fundamental aim of this discussion is for you to compare & contrast the political left (Biden) and the political right (Trump) in their response to COVID 19. This should be no more than 2 pages. Standard APA format is required. You should discuss the following: 
· Mask Mandates 
· Stimulus Checks 
· Schools (To Open or not To Open) 
· Economic, Political & Public Health differences 

The Supreme Court is a very powerful institution in American Government.  Many p

The Supreme Court is a very powerful institution in American Government.  Many people look at it as an entity that functions in a predictable manner.  Yet, in a very profound way, the Court is shaped by the human dynamic of who sits on the Court during any particular generation.  The Court decides cases by vote.  Thus, the ideological makeup of the Court is vital to understanding, how, why and when the Court has arrived at the legal conclusions it has.  This determines whether the vote of based on a strong majority or weak majority (ex. 7-2 versus 5-4).  These conclusions have shaped our level of freedom and allowed behavior as much, if not more, than the legislative action created by Congress. 
Your assignment is to conduct biographical and individual ideological research of the current nine members of the Court.  For each member, answer the following questions:
Name?
Age?
How long have they served on the Court and which U.S. President nominated them?
What is their perceived political ideology?
What is their perceived legal ideology?
Who, in your opinion is the most significant member of the Court as it relates to deciding the outcome of legal cases decided?  And why?  

vulnerabilities are very similar when it comes to Nepal or any other similar dev

vulnerabilities are very similar when it comes to Nepal or any other similar developing countries. We already know a lot about different types of vulnerabilities from this course. I will try not to repeat myself. We can see from Dr. Cuadra’s video lecture that social vulnerabilities are easily distinguishable (Cuadra,2022). First of all, the population of Nepal is very poor. As mentioned in the lecture, it is an ethnic-based society. There are a lot of different ethnicities, sects, religions, casts. And people are treated differently depending on where they are belonging. I know, it is 2022 and sounds crazy but what you can do. Some people think that they are superior to others just because they belong to some sect. There should not be any room for discrimination, marginalization, and inequality in a society that wants to prosper. Economic factors are clear as the sky. A poor country that mainly depends on the agricultural sector and some tourism. Relying heavily on one industry with poor regulation makes people a lot more vulnerable to disasters. Physical vulnerabilities are probably the most distinguishable. The large rural sector with pour construction regulation and almost no roads. Economically struggling authorities set building standards for country regions and do not provide finances to implement the standards on the level required for disaster-prone countries (Grunewald,6). As you know, building standards in highly seismic areas are the most strict and not easy to implement. Not only from a financial standpoint but from a construction standpoint. Where are you going to finds experienced trades with equipment and knowledge required to build a multi-level house per the highest seismic region standards per 7.8 magnitudes (Bhagat,1861)? Especially in Nepal. So, authorities have to be cognitive of that and not just assume that what is in the books is going to be in reality unless it is supervised vigilantly.
Physical factors had a big impact after the earthquake. Many buildings were damaged causing casualties, and help could not get to rural areas on time because of a lack of transportation infrastructure. The economical sector got hurt badly because tourism was a big part of it and many tourist locations were damaged. Also, it took a lot longer for rescue teams to get to rural sectors.     
Cuadra, J. (2022). Week 14 Hazards and Development: Nepal Gorkha Earthquake 2015 Video Lecture. https://canvas.fsu.edu/courses/188584/pages/gorkha-earthquake-nepal-video-lecture?module_item_id=3572406
Grunewald, F. (2016).  Nepal Earthquake: a rapid review of the response and a few lessons learned. (p.6 ).
Chapter 3 and 4. Groupe, U.R.D.
Bhagat, S. (2018).  Damage to Cultural Heritage Structure and Buildings Due to the 2015 Nepal Gorkha. (p.1861). Journal of Earthquake Engineering 2018, Vol 22, No.10,1861-1880

Respond to 2 Peer responses  Peer #1  Question #1: What are the major difference

Respond to 2 Peer responses 
Peer #1 
Question #1: What are the major differences between majoritarian and proportional electoral systems?
A majoritarian electoral system is one in which candidates need to receive a majority of votes to be elected, whether it be in a runoff election or in a final round of voting. A proportional electoral system is one in which divisions in the electorate are reflected proportionally in the elected body. Most countries use a form of the PR electoral system. The proportional electoral system stresses the concept of proportionality which deals with numerical accuracy regarding the votes cast for parties and their translations into seats ultimately won in parliament. In the PR system, “if a party receives 25% of the votes, it can expect to win 25% of the seats” (Gallagher, Mair, and Laver, 2011, pg. 372). Majoritarian systems do not actively set out to disregard proportionality, but do prioritize other aspects that they accept a certain degree of disproportionality as inevitable.
Majoritarian electoral systems are seen in places like the United States, Canada, Egypt, etc. It is a system that emphasizes the “winner-takes-all” ideology and where the country is subdivided into distinct districts and politicians compete for the district seats. The higher vote wins the seat. Proportional electoral systems are more so seen in places like Denmark, Finland, Bulgaria, etc. This system uses a collective approach being as the votes are being given towards a distinct party, not individual. Both of these systems work in their own ways, providing the governments in these countries with a variety of advantages and benefits. Although this is all true, criticisms and issues arise as well that affect the governance of the countries. 
Under the plurality system, some of the advantages include simplicity, stability, and constituency. It’s a system that makes it easy for a voter to understand, it creates strong and stable governments, and strong territorial constituency by an individual legislature. Each representative has the support of most if not all its constituents. Some of the issues that arise with this system though are those pertaining to geographical concentration where even if parties don’t manipulate district boundaries for political gain, this system can lead to over-representation of a specific party at the expense of others. Another criticism is that there tends to be less political parties in places with this system. There are usually only two. Various other criticisms arise such as redistricting and others.
Under the proportional system, the advantages include a greater degree of representation for smaller/minority parties. More constituents are represented so there are less “wasted” votes and encourages voter turn-out. Some disadvantages are the systems capability of providing extremists with lee-way into politics in which they force their ideas onto the public. It can also produce weak coalition governments rather than strong untied majority governments which leads to negative outcomes like compromisation. Just like the majoritarian system, there are advantages and disadvantages, but the major differences are the representation and unity they produce. 
Peer #2
Question #3: What are mixed electoral systems? What countries use a mixed system? Why do you think this particular type of system was adopted by the countries that use it?
Some countries instead of having proportional representation of plurality government have a mixture of both. These countries figure that this will create a balance between the two systems and will enable them to have the best of both worlds, and while it is true that each system has its own flaws that are addressed by the other, it is not necessarily true that combining the hem will retain the best of both worlds. Some have even said that the product is the worst of both worlds. 
Proportional representation systems have the benefits of providing a more accurate level of representation for the public as it is easier for small parties to find representation in the legislature. Proportional representation systems have been shown to more closely represent the interests of the average voter than majoritarian systems. But PR systems also have their drawbacks. For one, they can be volatile and unstable. Examples of this could be found in Denmark and eastern Europe. The PR system without proper institutionalization of parties like in eastern Europe can result in quickly fluctuating party dominances and parties that pop in and out of existence from one election to the next. In the case of Denmark party affiliation has become so polarized that some parties are not willing to even work with each other, threatening the success of coalition government. PR systems have also been associated with the development of welfare states, higher budget deficits and greater government spending, which has been seen as a negative characteristic of PR. The countries that have mixed systems have thought that the less flexible nature of majoritarian systems could help prevent this type of volatility and that a mixed system would have less public spending than PR systems.
Majoritarian governments have been said to have the advantage that they provide a greater ability for a party to affect exactly the types of changes it wants to implement. This is bourn out of the fact that majoritarian systems effectively have two party government and that the government in power is made up of one of those parties. This enables them to act without having to compromise with other groups, which allows them to put more of their platform into effect and would theoretically please more voters. But the downsides of Majoritarian government would also stem from this. The dominance of the two main parties would preclude smaller groups from having much of an affect on policy at all. The inclusion of PR in a mixed system would supposedly balance this out. Another strength of the majoritarian system is that geographic communities have representation from one specific representative. The mixed system is intended to provide this type of local representation as well as representation for national issues. 
Despite the theoretical benefits one study has noted that mixed systems have “lower levels of accountability, government effectiveness, control of corruption, representation of women in parliament and voter turnout” (Gallagher)